The Prague manual is a comprehensive report attempting to explain how the European liberal democratic countries should respond to the Kremlin´s ongoing subversive operations. More than four years after the annexation of Crimea, following several investigations conducted to understand the scope of the Kremlin´s influence in Western countries and after a number of attempts to meddle in national elections, the European debate should finally move from questioning whether a threat exists to taking steps to effectively counter it. There have been numerous efforts to step up governmental and non-governmental activities focused on building resilience, analysing or countering the Kremlin´s disinformation campaigns and influence operations, with each of them differing in impact and number of successes. This report is trying to use the existing experiences to provide a list of specific steps which should be taken in different political environments to be as efficient as possible.

How do the EU28 perceive and react to the threat of hostile influence and disinformation operations by the Russian Federation and its proxies?

Over the last year, the Czech Republic has undergone a major policy shift on the topic of Russian disinformation. Many questions have been raised on how it has happened and what practically it means. This paper aims to bring a simplified overview of what has happened in this particular field in the Czech context since 2014. 

This brief report aims to enumerate the tools that are nowadays used for hostile electoral interference and how they can be countered. It consists of 35 measures in 15 steps for enhancing the resilience of the democratic electoral process.